Insomnia is a very common sleep disorder in Western countries and affects nearly 20% of the adult population. Its occurrence is higher in women and increases with age. Being unemployed, living alone or suffering from a severe somatic disease (cardiovascular disease, pain) are additional risk factors for insomnia. There is some evidence that people with anxiety or depression are 7-10 times more likely to suffer from chronic insomnia than others.
The apnea sleep caused by involuntary cessation of breathing, the “apnea” occurring during sleep. Sleep apnea usually seen in people who are overweight, elderly, or who snore heavily. These breathing pauses last by more than 10 seconds (and can also reach more than 30 seconds). They occur numerous times a night, with fluctuating frequency. Doctors deem them to be problematic when there are more than 5 per hour. In majority cases, they occur up to more than 30 times per hour. These apneas disrupt sleep and causes fatigue upon waking, headaches or drowsiness during the day. The mechanism of sleep apnea is relaxation of the muscles of the pharynx and a blockage of the trachea. Resumption of breathing requires micro-arousals that disrupt sleep
The apnea sleep manifested by spontaneous cessation of breathing, the “apnea” occurring during sleep. Sleep apnea usually occurs in people who are obese, elderly, or who snore heavily. These breathing gaps last by definition more than 10 seconds. They occur numerous times a night, with varying frequency. Doctors consider them to be challenging when there are more than 5 per hour. In severe cases, they happen up to more than 30 times per hour. These apneas disrupt sleep and mainly result in tiredness upon waking, headaches or drowsiness during the day. The mechanism of sleep apnea is relaxation of the muscles of the pharynx and a blockage of the trachea. Resumption of breathing requires micro-arousals that disrupt sleep
Restless legs syndrome
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes an uncontrollable urge to move the legs, usually due to a feeling of discomfort. It usually occurs in the afternoon or evening when you are sitting or lying down. Movement temporarily relieves the unpleasant sensation. Restless legs syndrome, also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, can start at any age and generally worsens with age. It can disrupt sleep, interfering with daily activities. Simple self-care phases and lifestyle changes can help relieve symptoms. Medicines also help many people with restless leg syndrome.
REM sleep Behaviour Disorder
REM sleep typically makes up 15-25% of the normal sleep cycle and is the sleep phase where 80% of daydreams take place. From the electrophysiological point of view, it is defined by electroencephalographic cortical desynchronization, muscular atony, rapid eye movements, and ponto geniculo-occipital discharges. The anterior area of the oral pontine reticular nucleus is identified as the main area of coordination for these characteristic events during REM sleep. REM sleep conduct disorder (RCD) is a parasomnia that was initially described by Schenck et al. In 1986. This disorder is characterized by the loss of the muscular atony characteristic of REM sleep, associated with the activation of the motor system during daydreams, which are often violent and aggressive.